Posts filed under ‘Cognitive’
Both Piaget and Vygotsky provided highly influential theories which had impact on the way children are taught. However, as with every theory and study, there are pro’s and con’s to be highlighted. I will first evaluate Jean Piaget’s theory, followed by Lev Vygotsky. I will then compare and contrast the two with each other, showing the main similarities and differences between the two.
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Born in Orsha, a part of the Russian Empire (now known as Belarus) on 17th November 1896, Vygotsky was a pioneer of psychology; he contributed much important research to the field. He graduated from the Moscow State University in 1917, and went on to work in many research facilities and and educational establishments in Moscow, Leningrad and Kharkov. His extensive research into cognitive development has lead his theory to be one of the most important of it’s kind. He believed that children’s thinking is affected by their social knowledge, which are communicated by either psychological (language, number, art) or technical (books, calculator) means. He was – and sometimes still is – often criticised for being an idealist and his overemphasis of the role of language in thinking (more on the criticisms later). He was also a very popular author, with 6 volumes of his work being classed as major.
With the huge influx of 3D films exploding into cinema, it might be worth explaining the phenomenon of 3D glasses.
To fully understand the way 3D films and glasses work, we need to understand the basics of eyes:
From the diagram, it’s easy to see that each eye perceives a slightly different image. Humans have an astounding perception of depth and distance – but only in their binocular field of vision. You can put this to the test yourself. If you try to catch a ball with both eyes open, you’ll most likely catch it fine (unless you’re awful at catching…). As soon as you close one eye, it becomes a whole new situation. You’ll find it much harder to catch, because your brain cannot correlate the images from both eyes to perceive the correct distance.
The brain works on the premise that the eyes are roughly 6 inches apart. This way, it uses the two images to come to a “conclusion” about what an image should look like. This helps us perceive the correct distance, depth and see things in 3D.
3D films work in the same way. Two images are projected on the screen at different positions – from very slightly different angles. Most recent films make use of “polarisation” technology; the images on the screen have been polarised to different wavelengths. The glasses you wear have polarised lenses as well. This means only one of the two images can enter each lens. One eye sees one image from one angle, and the other eye sees the remaining image from the other angle.
Speaking in psychological terms, this tricks the brain into believing what you are seeing is actually real. It correlates the two images, as it would in real life, and you perceive a virtual 3D world. It turns the two separate images and gives them a “meaning”; they are turned into a binocular image, allowing you to see distance and depth.
So next time you watch Avatar, Alice in Wonderland, and many of the other 3D films which are critically acclaimed, you know exactly why you’re seeing something that’s not actually 3D!
A little bit of a fun post today!
I’m going to post some pictures of people’s eyes (I hope I don’t get murdered for copyright or something…?) and you need to guess (from the list) what expression they’re showing?
Sound simple? Think again. We like to think we’re amazing at interpreting faces, but we’re not as good as we first expect.
See how well you do – and don’t cheat!
1a) playful b) comforting c) irritated d) bored
2a) joking b) flustered c) desire d) convinced
3a) joking b) insisting c) amused d) relaxed
4a) apologetic b) friendly c) uneasy d) dispirited
5a) caution b) insisting c) bored d) aghast
6a) terrified b) amused c) regretful d) flirtatious
7a) disappointed b) irritated c) depressed d) accusing
8a) decisive b) amused c) aghast d) bored
9a) alarmed b) shy c) hostile d) anxious
10a) serious b) ashamed c) bewildered d) alarmed
11a) aghast b) fantasizing c) impatient d) alarmed
12a) scared b) anticipating c) threatening d) shy
13a) dominant b) sceptical c) friendly d) scared
14a) embarrassed b) serious c) guilty d) concern
15a) puzzled b) nervous c) insisting d) contemplative
Ready for the answers?
Make sure you’ve given an answer for every one – if you haven’t, just pick what feels “right”.
1 – playful; 2 – desire; 3 – insisting; 4 – uneasy; 5 – caution; 6 - regretful; 7 – accusing; 8 – decisive; 9 – hostile; 10 – serious; 11 – fantasizing; 12 – anticipating; 13 – friendly; 14 – concern; 15 – nervous.
How well did you do?
The average is around 12-15, so if you did worse than this, your mastery of the eyes is yet to be realised!